[OPTICAL REVIEW Vol. 3, No. 3 (1996) 211-215]
Analyses of Ion-exchanged Glass Optical Waveguides by Means of Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy: Condensation of Impurity Halide Ions at the Surface
Kiminori ITOH,1 Hiroshi NIIKURA,1 Masayuki MURABAYASHI1, and Osamu ODAWARA2
1Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Yokohama National University, 156, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, 240 Japan, 2Department of Electronic Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259, Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 227 Japan
(Received September 21, 1995; Accepted April 12, 1996)
We analyzed the chemical composition of K+-exchanged glass optical waveguides (OWGs) by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Extensive condensation of impurity halide ions took place at the surface of the OWGs in the ion-exchanging and annealing processes. The condensation of Cl- ions is likely a cause of the abnormal behavior observed for soda-lime glass OWGs; that is, a guided mode having appeared during the annealing did not disappear even after long annealing. Moreover, it was suggested that a space charge layer was formed at the OWG surfaces owing to the condensation of the halide ions.
Key words: glass optical waveguide, ion exchange, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, halide ions, annealing