[OPTICAL REVIEW Vol. 21, No. 6 (2014) 752-761]
© 2014 The Japan Society of Applied Physics

Linear and Nonlinear Raman Microspectroscopy: History, Instrumentation, and Applications

Hideaki KANO1*, Hiroki SEGAWA2, Philippe LEPROUX3, and Vincent COUDERC3

1Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573, Japan
2Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
3Institut de Recherche XLIM, UMR CNRS No. 7252, 87060 Limoges Cedex, France

(Received August 7, 2014; Accepted September 1, 2014)

Through carrying out Raman spectroscopy under a microscope, we can observe the molecular distribution and dynamics of living cells in situ without staining or labeling. In general, Raman microscopy/microspectroscopy is classified into spontaneous Raman microscopy/microspectroscopy and nonlinear Raman microscopy/microspectroscopy. This review will first summarize the historical development of Raman microscopes, and will discuss in detail their instrumentation and applications.

Key words: Raman spectroscopy, Raman microscopy, Raman microspectroscopy, coherent Raman scattering, CARS, CARS microscopy, CARS microspectroscopy

*E-mail address: hkano@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp